Pelvis | Oncology | Cervical cancer (tumor) (Disease)
Cervical cancer (tumor): Description
Cervical cancer is the term for a malignant neoplasm arising from cells originating in the cervix uteri, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur can include: vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause; watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor; pelvic pain or pain during intercourse; single swollen leg; weight loss; bone pain or fractures; fatigue.
Causes and Risk factors
There are two types of cells on the cervix surface: squamous which begin in the thin, flat cells that line the bottom of the cervix and columnar, these occur in the glandular cells that line the cervical canal. Cervical cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic mutation that turns normal cells into abnormal cells.
What causes cervical cancer isnt clear. Infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer followed by smoking.
Other risk factors, such as genetic makeup, environment or lifestyle choices, also determine developing cervical cancer. These factors may increase your risk of cervical cancer: many sexual partners, early sexual activity, other sexually transmitted infections, a weak immune system, cigarette smoking.
Cervical cancer (tumor): Treatment and Diagnosis
Screening for cervical cancer includes: Papanicolau test and HPV DNA test. Also a CT scan and MRI as well as a biopsy can help diagnosis. Treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors, such as: the stage, size and shape of the cancer; the womans age and general health and her desire to have children in the future.
Treatment options may include: surgery called hysterectomy, radiation and chemotherapy. However, some types of cervical cancer do not respond well to treatment and the cancer may come back, recur, after treatment